The early Archaic period The post-Mycenaean period and Lefkandi The period between the catastrophic end of the Mycenaean civilization and about bce is often called a Dark Age. It was a time about which Greeks of the Classical age had confused and actually false notions.
Early years[ edit ] Jean-Baptiste Regnault: His father was Cleinias who had distinguished himself in the Persian War both as a fighter himself and by personally subsidizing the cost of a trireme. The family of Cleinias had old connections with the Spartan aristocracy through a relationship of xeniaand the name "Alcibiades" was of Spartan origin.
Xenophon attempted to clear Socrates' name at trial by relaying information that Alcibiades was always corrupt and that Socrates merely failed in attempting to teach him morality. His bride brought with her a large dowry, which significantly increased Alcibiades' already substantial family fortune.
He seized her in court and carried her home again through the crowded Agora. She lived with him until her death, which came soon after, and gave birth to two children, a daughter and a son, Alcibiades the Younger. That treaty, an uneasy truce between Sparta and Athens signed midway through the Peloponnesian War, came at the end of seven years of fighting during which neither side had gained a decisive advantage.
Gomme and Raphael Sealey believe, and Thucydides reports,  that Alcibiades was offended that the Spartans had negotiated that treaty through Nicias and Lachesoverlooking him on account of his youth.
The Athenians initially received these ambassadors well, but Alcibiades met with them in secret before they were to speak to the ecclesia the Athenian Assembly and told them that the Assembly was haughty and had great ambitions. This was in direct contradiction to what they had said the day before, and Alcibiades seized on this opportunity to denounce their character, cast suspicion on their aims, and destroy their credibility.
This ploy increased Alcibiades's standing while embarrassing Nicias, and Alcibiades was subsequently appointed General. He A comparison of sparta and athens advantage of his increasing power to orchestrate the creation of an alliance between ArgosMantineaElisand other states in the Peloponnese, threatening Sparta's dominance in the region.
According to Gomme, "it was a grandiose scheme for an Athenian general at the head of a mainly Peloponnesian army to march through the Peloponnese cocking a snook at Sparta when her reputation was at its lowest".
Hyperbolos tried to bring about the ostracism of one of this pair, but Nicias and Alcibiades combined their influence to induce the people to expel Hyperbolos instead. Vandalizing hermai was one of the crimes of which Alcibiades was accused.
Egesta arrived at Athens to plead for the support of the Athenians in their war against Selinus. During the debates on the undertaking, Nicias was vehemently opposed to Athenian intervention, explaining that the campaign would be very costly and attacking the character and motives of Alcibiades, who had emerged as a major supporter of the expedition.
In his speech Alcibiades predicted over-optimistically, in the opinion of most historians that the Athenians would be able to recruit allies in the region and impose their rule on Syracusethe most powerful city of Sicily.
Almost certainly Nicias's intention was to shock the assembly with his high estimate of the forces required, but, instead of dissuading his fellow citizens, his analysis made them all the more eager.
This was a religious scandal and was seen as a bad omen for the mission. Plutarch explains that Androcles, a political leader, used false witnesses who accused Alcibiades and his friends of mutilating the statues, and of profaning the Eleusinian Mysteries.
Later his opponents, chief among them being Androcles and Thessalus, Cimon 's son, enlisted orators to argue that Alcibiades should set sail as planned and stand trial on his return from the campaign. Alcibiades was suspicious of their intentions, and asked to be allowed to stand trial immediately, under penalty of death, in order to clear his name.
And we cannot fix the exact point at which our empire shall stop; we have reached a position in which we must not be content with retaining but must scheme to extend it, for, if we cease to rule others, we are in danger of being ruled ourselves.
Nor can you look at inaction from the same point of view as others, unless you are prepared to change your habits and make them like theirs.
His property was confiscated and a reward of one talent was promised to whoever succeeded in killing any who had fled. Alcibiades, however, foreseeing that he would be outlawed, gave information to the friends of the Syracusans in Messina, who succeeded in preventing the admission of the Athenians.
Because of this defection, the Athenians condemned him to death in absentia and confiscated his property. Kagan asserts that Alcibiades had not yet acquired his "legendary" reputation, and the Spartans saw him as "a defeated and hunted man" whose policies "produced strategic failures" and brought "no decisive result".
If accurate, this assessment underscores one of Alcibiades's greatest talents, his highly persuasive oratory. As for democracythe men of sense among us knew what it was, and I perhaps as well as any, as I have the more cause to complain of it; but there is nothing new to be said of a patent absurdity—meanwhile we did not think it safe to alter it under the pressure of your hostility.
The move was devastating to Athens and forced the citizens to live within the long walls of the city year round, making them entirely dependent on their seaborne trade for food.
Seeing Athens thus beleaguered on a second front, members of the Delian League began to contemplate revolt. In the wake of Athens's disastrous defeat in Sicily, Alcibiades sailed to Ionia with a Spartan fleet and succeeded in persuading several critical cities to revolt.
According to ThucydidesAlcibiades immediately began to do all he could with Tissaphernes to injure the Peloponnesian cause. At his urging, the satrap reduced the payments he was making to the Peloponnesian fleet and began delivering them irregularly.Differences and similarities of Athens and Sparta Learn with flashcards, games, and more — for free.
CHAPTER I. THE BATTLE OF MARATHON Explanatory Remarks on some of the circumstances of the Battle of Marathon. Synopsis of Events between the Battle of Marathon, B.C.
, and the Defeat of the Athenians at Syracuse, B.C. Read Athens and Sparta Comparison free essay and over 88, other research documents. Athens and Sparta Comparison. Athens and Sparta Athens and Sparta were the two largest Greek city-states of the Ancient world. They were the biggest /5(1).
The Origin of Philosophy: The Attributes of Mythic/ Mythopoeic Thought. The pioneering work on this subject was The Intellectual Adventure of Ancient Man, An Essay on Speculative Thought in the Ancient Near East by Henri Frankfort, H.A. Frankfort, John A. Wilson, Thorkild Jacobsen, and William A.
Irwin (University of Chicago Press, , -- also once issued by Penguin as Before Philosophy).
May 03, · The Different Systems of Government in Athens and Sparta. Athens: Athens operated under a democratic timberdesignmag.com free Athenian men over 18 years old were considered citizens, and only citizens could hold government timberdesignmag.coms: Differences and similarities of Athens and Sparta Learn with flashcards, games, and more — for free.