Schizophrenia is a serious disorder which affects how a person thinks, feels and acts. The cause of schizophrenia is still unclear. Some theories about the cause of this disease include: Genetics Heredity Scientists recognize that the disorder tends to run in families and that a person inherits a tendency to develop the disease.
Publications and Resources Mental Disorders Get the facts on common mental disorders, such as those related to anxiety, attention deficit, conduct, depression, schizophrenia, and trauma.
The following are descriptions of the most common categories of mental illness in the United States. Anxiety Disorders Anxiety disorders are characterized by excessive fear or anxiety that is difficult to control and negatively and substantially impacts daily functioning.
Fear refers to the emotional response to a real or perceived threat while anxiety is the anticipation of a future threat.
These disorders can range from specific fears called phobiassuch as the fear of flying or public speaking, to more generalized feelings of worry and tension. Anxiety disorders typically develop in childhood and persist to adulthood. Specific anxiety disorders include generalized anxiety disorder GADpanic disorder, separation anxiety disorder, and social anxiety disorder social phobia.
Phobias and generalized anxiety usually first appear around age 11, and they are the most prevalent anxiety disorders in adults. Evidence suggests that many anxiety disorders may be caused by a combination of genetics, biology, and environmental factors.
Adverse childhood experiences may also contribute to risk for developing anxiety disorders. Children with ADHD have difficulty performing well in school, interacting with other children, and following through on tasks.
Adults with ADHD are often extremely distractible and have significant difficulties with organization. There are three sub-types of the disorder: The disorder occurs four times as often among boys than girls.
It is estimated that the prevalence of ADHD among adults is 2. Current research suggests that ADHD has a high degree of heritability, however, the exact gene or constellation of genes that give rise to the disorder are not known. Environmental risk factors may include low birth weight, smoking and alcohol use during pregnancy, exposure to lead, and history of child maltreatment.
The three overarching features of ADHD include inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Inattentive children may have trouble paying close attention to details, make careless mistakes in schoolwork, are easily distracted, have difficulty following through on tasks, such as homework assignments, or quickly become bored with a task.
Hyperactivity may be defined by fidgeting or squirming, excessive talking, running about, or difficulty sitting still. Bipolar and Related Disorders People with bipolar and related disorders experience atypical, dramatic swings in mood, and activity levels that go from periods of feeling intensely happy, irritable, and impulsive to periods of intense sadness and feelings of hopelessness.
Individuals with this disorder experience discrete mood episodes, characterized as either a: Manic episode—abnormally elevated, expansive, or irritable mood accompanied by increased energy or activity that substantially impairs functioning Hypomanic episode—similar to a manic episode, however not severe enough to cause serious social or occupational problems Major depressive episode—persistent depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure Mixed state—includes symptoms of both a manic episode and a major depressive episode People exhibiting these symptoms are most frequently identified as having one of two types of bipolar disorders: The bipolar II diagnosis is used when there has been a more regular occurrence of depressive episodes along with a hypomanic episode, but not a full-blown manic episode.
Cyclothymic disorder, or cyclothymia, is a diagnosis used for a mild form of bipolar disorder. The combined prevalence of bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder and cyclothymia is estimated at 2. A family history of bipolar disorder is the strongest risk factor for the condition, and the level of risk increases with the degree of kinship.
As mentioned previously, bipolar disorders are characterized by manic and depressive episodes. In children, manic episodes may present as an excessively silly or joyful mood that is unusual for the child or an uncharacteristically irritable temperament and are accompanied by unusual behavioral changes, such as decreased need for sleep, risk-seeking behavior, and distractibility.
Depressive episodes may present as a persistent, sad mood, feelings of worthlessness or guilt, and loss of interest in previously enjoyable activities. Behavioral changes associated with depressive episodes may include fatigue or loss of energy, gaining or losing a significant amount of weight, complaining about pain, or suicidal thoughts or plans.
Find more information about bipolar disorder on the NIMH website. They are characterized by a sad, hopeless, empty, or irritable mood, and somatic and cognitive changes that significantly interfere with daily life. Major depressive disorder MDD is defined as having a depressed mood for most of the day and a marked loss of interest or pleasure, among other symptoms present nearly every day for at least a two-week period.
In children and adolescents, MDD may manifest as an irritable rather than a sad disposition. MDD is thought to have many possible causes, including genetic, biological, and environmental factors. Adverse childhood experiences and stressful life experiences are known to contribute to risk for MDD.
In addition, those with closely related family members for example, parents or siblings who are diagnosed with the disorder are at increased risk.Mental Health America is a leader in mental health support, recovery and advocacy. A more recent estimate of the cost of schizophrenia and other serious mental illnesses (biplar disorder, serious depression, etc) from Dr, E.
Fuller Torrey in Q1, was that federal costs for the care of seriously mentally ill individuals now total $41 billion yearly and are rocketing upward at . That text recast the paranoid subtype of schizophrenia as a disorder of masculinized belligerence.
"The patient's attitude is frequently hostile and aggressive," DSM-II claimed, "and his behavior. PolicyReadily available, high-quality, evidence-based, culturally and linguistically competent preventive and therapeutic services and supports for mental and substance use conditions offer the greatest promise of preventing violent behavior.(1) Mental Health America (MHA) is committed to the development of public policies and allocation of public res.
Mental illnesses are common in the United States. Nearly one in five U.S. adults lives with a mental illness ( million in ). Mental illnesses include many different conditions that vary in degree of severity, ranging from mild to moderate to severe.
Statistical Prevalence of Schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is not a terribly common disease but it can be a serious and chronic one. Worldwide about 1 percent of the population is diagnosed with schizophrenia, and approximately % of Americans ( million) have the disorder.