Although water storage in rivers, lakes, and the atmosphere is small, the rate of water circulation through the rain-river-ocean-atmosphere system is relatively rapid. The amount of water discharged each year into the oceans from the land is approximately equal to the total mass of water stored at any instant in rivers and lakes. Soil moisture accounts for only 0. It is this small amount of water, however, that exerts the most direct influence on evaporation from soils.
Concerns about geographic ignorance usually focus on people's inability to locate cities, countries, and rivers on a world map, and geographic instruction is often equated with conveying information about remote parts of the world. From this perspective it may be a surprise to some that geography has relevance to many of the critical issues facing society in the late twentieth century.
Geographers and others using geographic knowledge and perspectives, in fact, are engaged in valuable research and teaching on matters ranging from environmental change to social conflict.
The value of these activities derives from geography's focus on the evolving character and organization of the Earth's surface, on the ways in which the interactions of physical and human phenomena in space create distinctive places and regions, and on the influences those places and regions have on a wide range of natural and human events and processes.
Such concerns are not simply exercises in expanding the encyclopedic knowledge of faraway places; they go to the heart of some of the most urgent questions before decision makers today: How should societies respond to the accelerated pace of environmental degradation in many parts of the world?
What are the underlying causes and consequences of the growing disparities between rich and poor? What are the mechanisms that drive Hydrosphere and the hydrologic cycle environmental sciences essay global climate system?
What causes the severe floods that have occurred in recent years, and how can society cope with such events?
How is technology changing economic and social systems? Addressing such questions goes far beyond the abilities and insights of any one discipline. New Relevance for Science and Society.
The National Academies Press.
The geographic perspective is concerned with the significance of place and space on processes and phenomena see Chapter 3 for a fuller discussion. The geographic perspective motivates such questions as: Why is a particular phenomenon found in some places but not others?
What does the spatial distribution of vegetation or homeless people or language traits tell us about how physical and human processes work? How do phenomena found in the same place influence one another, and how do phenomena found at different places influence one another?
How do processes that operate at one geographic scale affect processes at other scales?
What is the importance of location for efforts to effect or avoid political, social, economic, or environmental change? The importance of the geographic perspective to many contemporary "critical issues" for society is illustrated by a few selected examples in the following sections.
Economic Health Perhaps the main reason for American society's strong interest in geography in the s is a sense that jobs, income, and entrepreneurial opportunities in the United States are connected with the global marketplace.
The United States is caught up in the profoundly important process of global economic restructuring, in which every nation seeks competitive advantage in providing products and services that global consumers want.
Geography is expected to ensure a flow of accurate, timely, and useful information about the rest of the world, but it is more than a repository of place facts.
It asks, for example: How and why do commodities, money, information, and power flow from one place to another? What characteristics of a place cause it to do better economically than another? What actions are best taken at national, regional, or local scales to improve economic development? How does global economic change relate to global environmental change?
Geographers contribute to understanding and responding to global economic change through their focus on place and space—in this context, the effects of place location and space the connections between locations at different scales on economic change and development.
For example, Glasmeier and Howland used the heterogeneous and rapidly growing service sector to study the impacts of advanced information technologies on the growth of rural areas in the United States, recognizing the distinctiveness of rural areas as well as the social, economic, and geographic differences among rural areas.
Geographers go beyond regional estimates of production costs and product markets to understand the complex relationships among regional political, social, and environmental conditions and processes.
Markusenfor instance, has reviewed the economic and political history of regions and regionalism within the United States to relate political movements and economic structure in an historical and geographic context.
Hydrological Cycle Hydrological cycle is the process that involves the continuous circulation of water in the Earth-atmosphere system. The hydrologic cycle is a conceptual model that describes the storage and movement of water between the biosphere, atmosphere, lithosphere, and the hydrosphere. The Hydrosphere and the Hydrologic Cycle. STUDY. PLAY. Hydrosphere. All the earth's solid and liquid water including all the oceans, lakes, rivers, glaciers, and water underground Environmental science U4 L1. 15 terms. Structure of the Hydrosphere. 73 terms. Hydrology. 15 terms. Hydrology Unit. OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR. Much remains to be learned about large-scale hydrologic processes and about the interrelationships between hydrologic and climatological processes. Advances in the physical sciences that underlie and explain the behavior of water resources will be critically important in the future.
Geographers examine location as a factor influencing the connections of particular places to global changes and flows. A good example of a geographic perspective in action is an analysis of relationships between regional economic growth in the United States and patterns of military expenditures, which was led by Ann Markusen and Peter Hall Markusen et al.
This analysis suggested that publicly financed industrial production has a different geographic pattern than privately funded industrial activity because of strategic considerations such as the decentralization of production and the importance of relationships among defense contractors, military offices, and congressional budget decisions.
Further, it suggested that different periods of military spending have different geographies, but spending in each period has considerable spatial concentration.
For instance, "hot wars" such as World War II, Korea, and Vietnam tended to reinforce the prominence of existing industrial centers in the Northeast and Midwest, whereas Cold War spending patterns tended to shift military procurement toward the South, West, and New England.
These concentrations make it difficult for regions dependent on military spending to adjust when the nation moves from one period to another. Such research findings have helped the federal government appreciate the importance of formulating programs to help defense-dependent communities adjust to plant and facility closings and other impacts of defense spending cuts.
For instance, these findings have been influential in stimulating initiatives to educate state and local economic development officials about reemployment strategies and options for plant and facility reuse.The Water Cycle (also known as the hydrologic cycle) is the journey water takes as it circulates from the land to the sky and back again.
The Sun's heat provides energy to evaporate water from the Earth's surface (oceans, lakes, etc.). There are many water sources in the hydrosphere.
These water sources interact with each other. Some fascinating parts of Earth's hydrosphere is the hydrologic cycle, Earth's various water sources, and water pollution. Earth's different sources of water interact with each other in a process called the hydrologic cycle (Wile ).
Learn earth environmental science hydrosphere with free interactive flashcards. Choose from different sets of earth environmental science hydrosphere flashcards on Quizlet.
storage and movement of water between biosphere, atmosphere, lithosphere, and hydrosphere define eutrophication excessive richness of nutrients in lake or body of water, due to runoff from land. The University of Saskatchewan offers many courses that help students examine water-related topics from a variety of research angles.
The following is a listing of water-related courses that apply to the work of the Global Institute for Water Security. Hydrologic Cycle: Earth Science involves the study of systems such as the hydrologic cycle.
This type of system can only be understood by using a knowledge of geology (groundwater), meteorology (weather and climate), oceanography (ocean systems) and astronomy (energy input from the sun).