Given the commonly cited differences in philosophies, policies, and approaches between the early childhood birth to age 5 and elementary education communities, some of the above similarities are worth highlighting. The National Academies Press. Similarly, a common perception about early childhood professionals those who work with children under the age of 5 is that they lack adequate understanding of early learning in content areas or focus more on how children are developing in the socioemotional domain and in general learning competencies than on the foundations of learning discrete subjects. Yet both the NAEYC and the NBPTS standards express explicit expectations that these professionals understand content knowledge in specific subject areas and have the ability to use that understanding to develop curricula, learning environments, and learning activities.
and Competence for the Instructional Leader INSTRUCTIONAL leaders are caught up in the current wave of effort to improve education in the United States. As the teaching profession at large marshals its forces toward greater profes- sionalization, leaders within this group competencies from instructional leaders. A Dynamic Concept The writer. Developing Instructional Competencies CHAPTERSix OBJECTIVES After reading this chapter, the reader will be able to: on principles of effective instruction? 4. Which specific teaching and learning strategies can you use Lesson plans force teachers to iden-. The % online Master of Education, Curriculum & Instruction - Concentration in Special Education in Mild/Moderate Grades degree program is designed for certified teachers who teach students with mild/moderate disabilities across all grade levels and settings only.
Reproduction and dissemination are encouraged. The Committee  appointed to this project completed its work in following reviews of earlier drafts by members of the measurement, teaching, and teacher preparation and certification communities.
Parallel committees of affected associations are encouraged to develop similar statements of qualifications for school administrators, counselors, testing directors, supervisors, and other educators in the near future. These statements are intended to guide the preservice and inservice preparation of educators, the accreditation of preparation programs, and the future certification of all educators.
A standard is defined here as a principle generally accepted by the professional associations responsible for this document.
Assessment is defined as the process of obtaining information that is used to make educational decisions about students, to give feedback to the student about his or her progress, strengths, and weaknesses, to judge instructional effectiveness and curricular adequacy, and to inform policy.
The various assessment techniques include, but are not limited to, formal and informal observation, qualitative analysis of pupil performance and products, paper-and-pencil tests, oral questioning, and analysis of student records.
The assessment competencies included here are the knowledge and skills critical to a teacher's role as educator. It is understood that there are many competencies beyond assessment competencies which teachers must possess.
By establishing standards for teacher competence in student assessment, the associations subscribe to the view that student assessment is an essential part of teaching and that good teaching cannot exist without good student assessment. Training to develop the competencies covered in the standards should be an integral part of preservice preparation.
Further, such assessment training should be widely available to practicing teachers through staff development programs at the district and building levels. The standards are intended for use as: The standards should be incorporated into future teacher training and certification programs.
Teachers who have not had the preparation these standards imply should have the opportunity and support to develop these competencies before the standards enter into the evaluation of these teachers. The Approach Used To Develop The Standards The members of the associations that supported this work are professional educators involved in teaching, teacher education, and student assessment.
Members of these associations are concerned about the inadequacy with which teachers are prepared for assessing the educational progress of their students, and thus sought to address this concern effectively. A committee named by the associations first met in September and affirmed its commitment to defining standards for teacher preparation in student assessment.
The committee then undertook a review of the research literature to identify needs in student assessment, current levels of teacher training in student assessment, areas of teacher activities requiring competence in using assessments, and current levels of teacher competence in student assessment.
The members of the committee used their collective experience and expertise to formulate and then revise statements of important assessment competencies. Drafts of these competencies went through several revisions by the Committee before the standards were released for public review. Comments by reviewers from each of the associations were then used to prepare a final statement.
In recognizing the critical need to revitalize classroom assessment, some standards focus on classroom-based competencies. Because of teachers' growing roles in education and policy decisions beyond the classroom, other standards address assessment competencies underlying teacher participation in decisions related to assessment at the school, district, state, and national levels.
and Competence for the Instructional Leader INSTRUCTIONAL leaders are caught up in the current wave of effort to improve education in the United States. As the teaching profession at large marshals its forces toward greater profes- sionalization, leaders within this group competencies from instructional leaders. A Dynamic Concept The writer. Instructional competencies, as a dependent variable was analyzed by coming up with the concrete sub-variables (i.e. Mastery of the Subject Matter, Teaching Skills, . The board established a task force in to review and update the instructor competencies to reflect developments in teaching and learning and the use of online delivery system. The revised competencies and performance statements were then validated globally with a sample of more than 1, practitioners in all regions of world.
The scope of a teacher's professional role and responsibilities for student assessment may be described in terms of the following activities. These activities imply that teachers need competence in student assessment and sufficient time and resources to complete them in a professional manner.
Activities Occurring During Instruction a Monitoring pupil progress toward instructional goals; b identifying gains and difficulties pupils are experiencing in learning and performing; c adjusting instruction; d giving contingent, specific, and credible praise and feedback; e motivating students to learn; and f judging the extent of pupil attainment of instructional outcomes.
Activities Associated With a Teacher's Involvement in School Building and School District Decision-Making a Serving on a school or district committee examining the school's and district's strengths and weaknesses in the development of its students; b working on the development or selection of assessment methods for school building or school district use; c evaluating school district curriculum; and d other related activities.
Activities Associated With a Teacher's Involvement in a Wider Community of Educators a Serving on a state committee asked to develop learning goals and associated assessment methods; b participating in reviews of the appropriateness of district, state, or national student goals and associated assessment methods; and c interpreting the results of state and national student assessment programs.
Each standard that follows is an expectation for assessment knowledge or skill that a teacher should possess in order to perform well in the five areas just described.
As a set, the standards call on teachers to demonstrate skill at selecting, developing, applying, using, communicating, and evaluating student assessment information and student assessment practices. A brief rationale and illustrative behaviors follow each standard.
The standards represent a conceptual framework or scaffolding from which specific skills can be derived. Work to make these standards operational will be needed even after they have been published. It is also expected that experience in the application of these standards should lead to their improvement and further development.
Teachers should be skilled in choosing assessment methods appropriate for instructional decisions. Skills in choosing appropriate, useful, administratively convenient, technically adequate, and fair assessment methods are prerequisite to good use of information to support instructional decisions.The % online Master of Education, Curriculum & Instruction - Concentration in Special Education in Mild/Moderate Grades degree program is designed for certified teachers who teach students with mild/moderate disabilities across all grade levels and settings only.
Weimer, ) identify objectives as the logical foundation of the teaching–learning–assess- ment process and agree that the ﬁrst step of an instructional plan is to identify the course objec- tives. By establishing standards for teacher competence in student assessment, the associations subscribe to the view that student assessment is an essential part of teaching and that good teaching cannot exist without good student assessment.
In order to derive the level of competencies of the teaching force, a survey was conducted measuring the perception on the level of competencies the teachers demonstrate. On the other hand, the academic performance of the students was based from the grades attained from the English, Science and Technology, and Mathematics grades from the .
Developing Instructional Competencies CHAPTERSix OBJECTIVES After reading this chapter, the reader will be able to: teaching philosophies, training, and interventions selected (Stanford & Reeves, Lesson plans force teachers to iden-tify what they will teach and how they will do it.
Many beginning teachers do not. or director of instruction, should have had teaching experience at the elemen tary, or junior high school level, as well as at the high school level. If competence is viewed as continuing growth and power, leaders may continue to grow in teaching competence through short .